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Research Design Selection

This sub-category is all about how to select a study deign and what considerations should be taken.

Types of Study Design: The Reference Period

On the basis of the reference period, the study designs can be categorized into retrospective, prospective and retrospective-prospective study designs Retrospective The aim behind retrospective study design is to study some event, phenomenon or situation that has been happened previously. There are only two ways to collect data for a retrospective study: either the investigator collects information from written evidence like from books, magazines, …

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Experimental versus Non-Experimental Study Design

On the basis of the nature of the investigation, the study designs can be classified into three types of studies: Experimental study design Non-experimental study design Semi-experimental or quasi-design The experimental study design The experimental study design is one of the most commonly used study design in the social science, psychology, marketing, business, and education. There are many types of …

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The Placebo Design in Research

The placebo design in research is a type of experimental study design. The aim of a placebo design in research is to know the effectiveness of a program or treatment through the use of a placebo group. A placebo group usually get an ineffective treatment or no treatment; for example, in one experiment the experimenter gives the treatment pills to …

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The Cohort Studies in Research

Cohort studies are conducted based on some common characteristics among the population. Cohort studies are conducted just like longitudinal study except that the target population in the cohort studies share some common characteristics. The common characteristic can be any factor like age, employment, marriage, education year, fertility behavior or other demographics. A cohort study can be conducted like a cross-sectional …

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Types of Study Designs: The number of Contacts

The number of contacts with the study population is a good way to define the types of study designs. On the basis of the number of contacts with the study population the study design can be classified into three types: Cross-sectional studies Longitudinal studies Before-and-after studies Types of study designs The cross-sectional study design The cross-sectional study design is most …

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The Cross-sectional Study Design in Research

What is a cross-sectional study A cross-sectional study makes inferences about a population at one point of time. The purpose of these studies is not to follow up with the audience but to collect the data once. When the investigator repeats the cross-sectional study with later surveys he does not choose the same sample rather he takes another sample. The …

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The Longitudinal Study Design in Research

The longitudinal study designs study the impact of an intervention, phenomenon, situation or treatment over a period of time. The investigator studies the population at one time and makes record of it and then over a period of time he/she continuously collect data from the same respondents to know the impact of time on the impact of an intervention or …

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The Retrospective-Prospective Study Design in Research

Retrospective-prospective studies focus on a phenomenon in the past and study it in the future. The only difference between these studies and before-and-after studies is that they do not have a control group. Most of the before-and-after studies without a control group are retrospective-prospective study designs. In retrospective-prospective study design, the investigator collects some data about the population before the …

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The Retrospective Study Design in Research

The aim behind retrospective study design is to study some event, phenomenon or situation that has been happened previously. There are only two ways to collect data for a retrospective study: either the investigator collects information from written evidence like from books, magazines, newspapers, diaries and other personal records, or he asks the respondents who can recall the situation. Asking …

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The Prospective Study Design in Research

The prospective study design studies the impact of a phenomenon, situation, program, attitude or problem in the future. Most of the studies that are conducted using the prospective study design are also classified as experimental studies since the aim of the investigator is to wait for the impact of a program or a situation to see the results on the …

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