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Research Design

The Cross-sectional Study Design in Research

What is a cross-sectional study A cross-sectional study makes inferences about a population at one point of time. The purpose of these studies is not to follow up with the audience but to collect the data once. When the investigator repeats the cross-sectional study with later surveys he does not choose the same sample rather he takes another sample. The …

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The Longitudinal Study Design in Research

The longitudinal study designs study the impact of an intervention, phenomenon, situation or treatment over a period of time. The investigator studies the population at one time and makes record of it and then over a period of time he/she continuously collect data from the same respondents to know the impact of time on the impact of an intervention or …

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The Retrospective-Prospective Study Design in Research

Retrospective-prospective studies focus on a phenomenon in the past and study it in the future. The only difference between these studies and before-and-after studies is that they do not have  a control group. Most of the before-and-after studies without a control group are retrospective-prospective study designs. In retrospective-prospective study design the investigator collects some data about the population before the …

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The Retrospective Study Design in Research

The aim behind retrospective study design is to study some event, phenomenon or situation that has been happened previously. There are only two ways to collect data for a retrospective study: either the investigator collect information from written evidences like from books, magazines, newspapers, diaries and other personal records, or he asks the respondents who can recall the situation. Asking …

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The Prospective Study Design in Research

The prospective study design studies the impact of a phenomenon, situation, program, attitude or problem in the future. Most of the studies that are conducted using the prospective study design are also classified as experimental studies since the aim of the investigator is to wait for the impact of a program or a situation to see the results on the …

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The Experimental Study Design in Research

The experimental study design has many different approaches to carry on and to understand each of these designs one needs to study them in detail. The experimental study design is based on the scientific approach to collect data and it uses naturalistic paradigm in research. Its use is more common in natural and pure sciences where quantitative research is the …

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Ratio Scale in Research Methodology

Ratio scale has all the characteristics to make it a pure scale especially for the research related to pure sciences. Ratio scale has all the characteristics of interval scale plus the additional benefit that it has a well-defined zero. It also takes into account the ratios between different values of the variables. Characteristics of ratio scale Ratio scale has order …

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Functions of a Research Design

basic and applied research

The functions of a research design The definition of the research design explains the functions of a research design. A research design is a logical procedural plan that the researcher takes on to get answers to the research questions. The aim in the selection and building a research design is to ensure the validity, reliability, and accuracy of the research …

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Research Design: Experimental and Non-experimental Research

Experimental researches

One of the broad way to categorize research designs is to divide them into experimental and non-experimental research. There are various benefits and drawbacks of experimental research design over non-experimental research design and vice versa. There are various situations in which experimental research design can only work while in other situations only non-experimental research design can work. The selection of experimental …

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Types of Research Design

Types of research design

There are various types of research design and the selection of a suitable study design depends on the field of study as well as the topic of the research. Some types of research design best suit in pure sciences field, while other can be best applied to social sciences, behavioral science, and marketing. These different types of research design can …

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