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]]>Displaying data through a table is the most preferred method in research writing. Tables are important because they make understanding of data easier. The lengthy amount of data that you might have received can become concise and precise with tables and figures. The tables can easily be created and formatted in Microsoft Word or any other software that you are using. Once you will be done with creating all the tables for the data you have received, you will see that your research is simplified and looks meaningful. While presenting data you will only need tables, figures, and diagrams to present your idea to the listeners. While displaying data in the form of tables you should make sure that the tables have a significance for your research. In some descriptive research, there is no need to display data in the form of tables, in descriptive research, you can simply state the data descriptively rather than displaying it in the form of tables.

Each table has a title and this title needs to be concise but precise, the writer should give a numeric identity to the table as well. Titles need to explain clearly what the reader is going to see in the table. In your research, every table should have a unique title and the tables are listed with these titles. The list of all the tables should be provided at the beginning of the research report alphabetically. If there are several chapters in the research, which mostly are, the chapter number should precede the table number to make it easy to find later on.

The body consists of the cells (columns and rows) that contain the main analyzed data. As tables are two-dimensional so to understand each point in the table body one needs to review it in light of both heading under which it falls vertically and horizontally.

There are two types of headings in the table, the headings along the y-axis and the headings along the x-axis. The headings along the y-axis describe one variable about which the information is presented in the body of the table. The headings along the x-axis represent another variable about which also the information or data is represented in the body.

- A very simple table is one that is used in showing qualitative data in research. This kind of table does not have any variable to compare or study. This kind of table is used to give examples or to enlist something or to show categories of different items.
- There are also numeric tables, these tables are more commonly used in the research than the simple qualitative table. These tables provide numeric values of a variable under study.
- Statistical tables can be of two types; analysis of variance or ANOVA tables and regression tables. While displaying data that is quantitative the researcher needs to know about the variables and their type that have to be analyzed to better make the decision about the type of table.

- https://www.ncsu.edu/labwrite/res/gh/gh-tables.html
- Birchman, J. S., A. (2003). Enhancing the appearance of information graphic. Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 67(1), 17.
- Wright, P. (1977). Presenting technical information: A survey of research findings. Instructional Science, 6, 93-134.

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]]>The post Displaying Data in Research Methodology appeared first on Reading Craze.

]]>There are basically two ways to display data: tables and graphs. The tabulated data and the graphical representation both should be used to give more accurate picture of the research. In quantitative research it is very necessary to display data, on the other hand in qualitative data the researcher decides whether there is a need to display data or not. The researcher can use an appropriate software to help tabulate and display the data in the form of graphs. Microsoft excel is one such example, it is a user-friendly program that you can use to help display the data.

The use of tables to display data is very common in research. Tables are very effective in presenting a large amount of data. They organize data very well and makes the data very visible. A badly tabulated data also occurs, in case, you do not have knowledge of tables and tabulating data consult a statistician to do this step effectively.

To know the tables and to tabulate data in tables you should know the parts or structure of the tables. There are five parts of a tables, namely;

The title of the table speaks about the contents of the table. The title should have to be concise and precise, no extra details. The title should be written in sentence case.

The column at the left-most of the table is called as stub. A stub has a stub-heading at the top of the column, not all tables have stub. The stub shows the subcategories that are listed along Y-axis.

The caption is the column heading, the variable might have subcategories which are captioned. These subcategories are provided on the X-axis, the captions are provided on the top of each column.

The body of the table is the actual part of the table in which resides the whole values, results, and analysis.

There can be many different types of notes that you may have to provide at the end of the table. The footnotes are provided just below the table and labeled as the source. The source generally are provided when the table has been taken from some other source. They are also provided for explaining some point in the table. Sometimes there is some part of the table that is taken from a source so it should also be mentioned.

Tables are the most simple means to display data, they can be categorized into the following;

Univariate

Bivariate

Polyvariate

These categories are based on the numbers of variables that need to be tabulated in the table. A univariate table has one variable to be tabulated; a bivariate table, as the name suggests, has two variables to be tabulated and a polyvariate table has more than two variables to be tabulated.

The purpose of displaying data is to make the communications easier. Graphs should be used in displaying data when they can add to the visual beauty of the data. The researcher should decide whether there is a need for table only or he should also present data in the form of a suitable graph.

You can use a suitable graph type depending on the type of data and the variables involved in the data.

The histogram is a graph that is highly used for displaying data. A histogram consists of rectangles that are drawn next to each other on the graph. The rectangles have no space in between them. A histogram can be drawn for a single variable as well as for two or more than two variables. The height of the bars in the histogram represent the frequency of each variable. It can be drawn for both categorical and continuous variables.

The bar chart is similar to a histogram except in that it is drawn only for categorical variables. Since it is used for categorical variables, therefore, it is drawn with space between the rectangles.

A frequency polygon is also very much like a histogram. A frequency polygon consists of frequency rectangles drawn next to each other but the values taken to draw the rectangles is the midpoint of the values. The height of the rectangles describes the frequency of each interval. A line is drawn that touches the midpoints at the highest frequency level on Y-axis and it touches the X-axis on each extreme end.

The cumulative frequency polygon is also a frequency polygon, it is drawn using the cumulative frequencies on the Y-axis. The values on the X-axis are taken by using the endpoints of the interval. The endpoints of the interval are joined to each other the reason being that the cumulative frequency is always based on the upper limit of an interval.

The stem and leaf display is another easy way to display data. The stem and leaf display if rotated to 90 degrees become a histogram.

The pie chart is a very different way to display data. The pie chart is a circle, as a circle has 360 degrees so it is taken in percentage and the whole pie or circle represent the whole population. The pie or circle is divided into slices or sections, each section represents the magnitude of the category or the sub-category.

The trend curve is also called as the line diagram. It is drawn by plotting the midpoints on the X-axis and the frequencies commensurate with each interval on the Y-axis. The trend curve is drawn only for a set of data that has been measured on the continuous, interval or ratio scale. A trend diagram or the line diagram is most suitable for plotting values that show changes over a period of time.

The area chart is a variation of the trend curve. In area chart, the sub-categories of a variable can be displayed. The categories in the chart are displayed by shading them with different colors or patterns. For example, if there are both males and females category in the dataset both can be highlighted in this chart.

A scattergram is a very simple way to plot the data on a chart. The scattergram is used for data where the change in one variable affects the change in the other variable. The frequency against each interval is plotted with the help of dots.

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