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Data Collection

Data Collection

The Concept of Validity in Qualitative Research

The concept of reliability, generalizability, and validity in qualitative research is often criticized by the proponents of quantitative research. Though it is difficult to maintain validity in qualitative research but there are some alternate ways in which the quality of the qualitative research can be enhanced. The aim of any research regardless of whether it is a quantitative research or a …

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The Concept of Reliability in Qualitative Research

The concept of reliability in qualitative research needs to be studied keeping in mind the interpretivist or naturalist paradigm of the research. In positivism or quantitative research, the use of reliability and validity is very common but the questions always arise that how to maintain the concept of reliability in qualitative research studies. There are various ways in which the …

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Close-ended Questions in Survey Research

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In survey research, close-ended questions and open-ended questions are the two basic ways to design questionnaires and interviews. Close-ended questions like the name suggest are the ones that provide some limits to the audience to answer the questions or record the responses as in the questionnaire. In the questionnaire, the researcher provides some options for each question and in the …

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Ethics in Data Collection in Research

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Ethics in data collection is not only an important but a sensitive issue, the respondent has all the right to say no to answer questions to your answers. He has all the right to say no to participation in the survey and it all depends on his/her will that you will be able to collect data. Consent of the respondent …

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Open-ended Questions Advantages and Disadvantages

Types of Questions

In social science research, open-ended questions and close-ended questions are the two forms of questions that the researcher can use in his/her interview schedule and in the questionnaire. The wording, type, and format of questions are very important to consider when formulating interview schedule or while formatting questionnaire. This can impact the validity, reliability, and accuracy of your research instrument. Open-ended …

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Difference Between Structured and Unstructured Interviews

Interview

The interviews in research are classified as structured and unstructured interviews. An interview is the most commonly used method of recording responses from the respondents in social science research. The interview is a primary source of data collection in research. Interviews can be formal or informal and they can be rigid or flexible depending on the purpose of the interview. …

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Recording Observation Data in Research

Observation Research Data

The process of recording observation in research can be done in several ways, the researcher keeps in mind the purpose of the observation to decide how to record them. To decide about the method of observation the researcher should also know whether the observation is made in natural settings or in controlled settings. In both cases, the method of recording …

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Questionnaire Design Goal

The goal of a questionnaire design is to find answers for research objectives. The answers generated from the questionnaires need also be relevant and valid. Therefore, the purpose of the research questionnaire is to find reliable and valid answers to the research questions. The researcher first needs to define the aims of the research, wether it is a market research …

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Primary and Secondary Data in Research

Research Data

Primary and Secondary Data Primary and secondary data are the two most prominent forms of data available for research studies. In some research, the researchers might use territory data but the reliability and validity of research decrease with the use of lesser authentic data. Data can be defined as the quantitative or qualitative values of a variable. Data is plural of Datum which …

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Reliability of the Research Instrument

Reliability

The word reliability is used so often in our life. When we say that someone is reliable, we mean that that person is honest, predictable, consistent and stable. There can be many ways in which the reliability of the instrument can be improved as well as there are several ways in which the reliability of the instrument can be poorly …

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