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Close-ended Questions in Survey Research

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In survey research, close-ended questions and open-ended questions are the two basic ways to design questionnaires and interviews. Close-ended questions like the name suggest are the ones that provide some limits to the audience to answer the questions or record the responses as in the questionnaire. In the questionnaire, the researcher provides some options for each question and in the …

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Ethics in Data Collection in Research

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Ethics in data collection is not only an important but a sensitive issue, the respondent has all the right to say no to answer questions to your answers. He has all the right to say no to participation in the survey and it all depends on his/her will that you will be able to collect data. Consent of the respondent …

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Open-ended Questions Advantages and Disadvantages

Types of Questions

In social science research, open-ended questions and close-ended questions are the two forms of questions that the researcher can use in his/her interview schedule and in the questionnaire. The wording, type, and format of questions are very important to consider when formulating interview schedule or while formatting questionnaire. This can impact the validity, reliability, and accuracy of your research instrument. Open-ended …

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Difference Between Structured and Unstructured Interviews

Interview

The interviews in research are classified as structured and unstructured interviews. An interview is the most commonly used method of recording responses from the respondents in social science research. The interview is a primary source of data collection in research. Interviews can be formal or informal and they can be rigid or flexible depending on the purpose of the interview. …

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Recording Observation Data in Research

Observation Research Data

The process of recording observation in research can be done in several ways, the researcher keeps in mind the purpose of the observation to decide how to record them. To decide about the method of observation the researcher should also know whether the observation is made in natural settings or in controlled settings. In both cases, the method of recording …

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Types of Observation in Social Science Research

alien research

There are two types of observation in social science research: participant observation and non-participant observation. The purpose of both types of observation is to collect primary data from the respondents or sample. What is observation? In social science research, the researcher can collect data using various sources: primary or secondary and sometimes there are tertiary sources as well. Observation is …

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Constructivism Paradigm in Social Science Research

Constructivism is an approach to conducting the research just like positivism. This approach is one of the most misunderstood because of its unconventional approach to using a confirm methodology. Constructivism is based on the belief that human behavior and their actions are based on the relative experiences they have of the society and how they perceive it. Constructivists believe that …

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Positivism in Social Science Research

The concept of positivism in social science research developed after the studies of a French philosopher August Comte, he focused on the use of scientific techniques to study human behavior. In pure sciences, positivism has long been in use and its roots can be traced back to Aristotle, Descarte, Francis Bacon, and Galileo. Definition As defined by “Mertens (2005) and …

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What is a Research Paradigm?

research pradigm

Definition A research paradigm is an approach or a research model to conducting a research that has been verified by the research community for long and that has been in practice for hundreds of years. Most of the research paradigms emerge from one of the two of the approaches to research that are positivist approach and interpretivism approach. Every research uses …

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Ratio Scale in Research Methodology

Ratio scale has all the characteristics to make it a pure scale especially for the research related to pure sciences. Ratio scale has all the characteristics of interval scale plus the additional benefit that it has a well-defined zero. It also takes into account the ratios between different values of the variables. Characteristics of ratio scale Ratio scale has order …

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