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Hypothesis Testing: Types and Errors

Hypothesis testing Hypothesis testing is used in research to agree or disagree with the research hypothesis that the researcher has formulated for his research. It is a statistical procedure that infers whether the research hypothesis is valid or not. To understand the role of hypothesis in research methodology one should have knowledge about the types and errors of testing a …

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The Cross-sectional Study Design in Research

What is a cross-sectional study A cross-sectional study makes inferences about a population at one point of time. The purpose of these studies is not to follow up with the audience but to collect the data once. When the investigator repeats the cross-sectional study with later surveys he does not choose the same sample rather he takes another sample. The …

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The Longitudinal Study Design in Research

The longitudinal study designs study the impact of an intervention, phenomenon, situation or treatment over a period of time. The investigator studies the population at one time and makes record of it and then over a period of time he/she continuously collect data from the same respondents to know the impact of time on the impact of an intervention or …

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The Retrospective-Prospective Study Design in Research

Retrospective-prospective studies focus on a phenomenon in the past and study it in the future. The only difference between these studies and before-and-after studies is that they do not have  a control group. Most of the before-and-after studies without a control group are retrospective-prospective study designs. In retrospective-prospective study design the investigator collects some data about the population before the …

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The Retrospective Study Design in Research

The aim behind retrospective study design is to study some event, phenomenon or situation that has been happened previously. There are only two ways to collect data for a retrospective study: either the investigator collect information from written evidences like from books, magazines, newspapers, diaries and other personal records, or he asks the respondents who can recall the situation. Asking …

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The Prospective Study Design in Research

The prospective study design studies the impact of a phenomenon, situation, program, attitude or problem in the future. Most of the studies that are conducted using the prospective study design are also classified as experimental studies since the aim of the investigator is to wait for the impact of a program or a situation to see the results on the …

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The Experimental Study Design in Research

The experimental study design has many different approaches to carry on and to understand each of these designs one needs to study them in detail. The experimental study design is based on the scientific approach to collect data and it uses naturalistic paradigm in research. Its use is more common in natural and pure sciences where quantitative research is the …

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The Concept of Validity in Qualitative Research

The concept of reliability, generalizability, and validity in qualitative research is often criticized by the proponents of quantitative research. Though it is difficult to maintain validity in qualitative research but there are some alternate ways in which the quality of the qualitative research can be enhanced. The aim of any research regardless of whether it is a quantitative research or a …

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The Concept of Reliability in Qualitative Research

The concept of reliability in qualitative research needs to be studied keeping in mind the interpretivist or naturalist paradigm of the research. In positivism or quantitative research, the use of reliability and validity is very common but the questions always arise that how to maintain the concept of reliability in qualitative research studies. There are various ways in which the …

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Close-ended Questions in Survey Research

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In survey research, close-ended questions and open-ended questions are the two basic ways to design questionnaires and interviews. Close-ended questions like the name suggest are the ones that provide some limits to the audience to answer the questions or record the responses as in the questionnaire. In the questionnaire, the researcher provides some options for each question and in the …

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